dijous, 11 d’abril de 2019

Què és el Dret a la Desconnexió Digital?







El Dret a la Desconnexió Digital fora de l'horari de treball es conceptua com la limitació a l'ús de les tecnologies de la comunicació (missatgeries, wsaps i correus electrònics en la seva major mesura), per a garantir el temps de descans i vacances dels treballadors/es.
Tanmateix, al respecte d’aquesta qüestió hi ha establerta una directiva europea, que en l’article 88.1 diu el següent:

“Els/les treballadors/es...tindran Dret a la Desconnexió Digital a fi de garantir, fora del temps de treball legal o convencionalment establert, el respecte del seu temps de descans, permisos i vacances, així com de la seva intimitat personal i familiar”.

Aquest és potser el dret que més ha donat a parlar pel que fa referència als drets digitals.
Té a veure amb la conciliació entre la vida laboral i la personal o familiar. Per tant, es podria considerar una expressió, en l'àmbit laboral, dels drets fonamentals a la intimitat i a la integritat física i psíquica.

Bàsicament, es podria definir com la limitació a l'ús de les tecnologies per a garantir el temps de descans, permisos i vacances dels treballadors/es i la intimitat personal i familiar. Per la qual cosa, a tall d'exemple, fora de l'horari laboral els/les treballadors/es no estarien obligats/des a respondre trucades, sms, missatges de text o correu electrònics del treball.

L'empresari no pot de cap manera pressuposar, sense violentar la normativa nacional i comunitària, que els seus treballadors/es han d'estar sempre disponibles i alerta per a respondre als seus missatges relacionats amb problemes laborals. Per la qual cosa, si es col·loquen en una situació “d’il·localitzables” i no responen al seu telèfon mòbil o als correus en els seus ordinadors fora de l'horari laboral, no es poden qualificar tals conductes com a incompliments laborals sense que, per tant, se les hagi de sancionar disciplinàriament.

Per una altra banda cal tenir present que, la Directiva 2003/88/CE -EDL 2003/198134-, que s'aplica a tots els sectors d'activitat, privats i públics, excepte les excepcions que en ella es preveuen (art.1.3), defineix el concepte de temps de treball com: “tot període durant el qual el/la treballador/a romangui en el treball, a disposició de l'empresari i en l'exercici de la seva activitat o les seves funcions” (art.2.1).

Dit això, res impedeix que el denominat temps de contacte o disposició tecnològica per a atendre informació provinent de l'empresa, i àdhuc realitzat fora del lloc o centre de treball, sigui considerat com a temps de treball, i per tant retribuït o compensat per temps de descans i computat a l'efecte de determinar la durada màxima de la jornada laboral diària i setmanal. Doncs, el fet que el/la treballador/a es trobi a casa seva i fora de la jornada laboral no és obstacle per a atribuir tal naturalesa laboral a un temps extra dedicat a fer gestions en interès per a la seva empresa, a través dels sistemes de comunicació interactius.

D'altra banda, el concepte temps de descans es defineix en sentit negatiu, per exclusió de l'altre, com: “tot període que no sigui temps de treball”, (art.2.2 -EDL 2003/198134-), per la qual cosa el/la treballador/a o està en temps de treball o de descans. El temps de descans ha de ser-ho en sentit ple, sense que es contempli un tercer temps, intermedi entre els de treball i descans.
 
Com es dedueix de la STJUE 9-9-03, C-151/2002, Assumpte Jaeger -EDJ 2003/64017-, un període de descans es caracteritza perquè durant la seva durada “el/la treballador/a no està subjecte a cap obligació vis a vis amb el seu empresari, la qual cosa podria impedir-li el dedicar-se lliurement i sense interrupció a la consecució dels seus propis interessos” (paràgraf 94).

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